Archive for the ‘Ivory’ Category

History of Myanmar?s Ivory Carving

Ivory carving has also flourished in Myanmar like Thailand, a well-known country of elephants. In the 13th century when Marco Polo went to Burma, he described the country as teeming with elephants, rhinos and other wild beasts. But unlike Thailand, there was no evidence that ivory was used either in the north or south of country until the 19th century.

Although elephants were widely used in extracting logs from the forest during the Pagan Kingdom and the Toungoo Dynasty, today?s artifacts and available historical information have not indicated any existence of iron carving during these period. The British diplomatic mission, whom deployed by the British colonizers in late 19th century, reported an existence of ivory production in two remote tribal areas in Kachin State in the north and mentioned a small paper-knife used to squeeze on ceremonial headdresses and tuck away hair.

The earliest dated item made from ivory was an ivory chair crafted for King Thibaw in 1878. Today, it is housed in the National Museum collections in Yangon. Historians estimate the beginning of ivory carving in the 1860s in the court of Kind Mindon with U Oh, Uhmyin, and U Maun. They were the only known ivory craftsmen in Mandalay. Oral histories mentioned the name U Saya Ohn too as a famous carver in Rangoon, also around the 1860s. He is known as the trainer of first generation ivory carvers and the master of the three best carvers in Mandalay.

In Burmese language, ivory carving is called ?sinswe pan pu.? Pan pu refers to wood carving, which is one of the pan sai myo or ?ten arts.? Historians approximate that ivory carving in Lower Burma was inspired by British colonizers and Indian traders. Meanwhile, ivory carving in Upper Burma flourished in the Court of Ava in the same decade. However, there was no collection having refined carving skills.

Ivory carving in Burma is associated with nobility and Buddhist church. In 1885 when Konbaung Dynasty ended, Mandalay?s royal patronage also ended. Ivory carvings are made mainly for the British and Indians immigrants.

You may not consider everything you just read to be crucial information about Ivory. But don’t be surprised if you find yourself recalling and using this very information in the next few days.

Ivory carving workshops were established in Moulmein (Mawlamyine) and Pyinmana in the south in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. But the Burmese ivory craftsmanship during this era was not highly praised and was not flourishing.

When Japan invaded Burma at the end of 1941, it developed the ivory industry. During the Japanese colonization, there were around 56 ivory craftsmen in eight businesses in Mandalay. The Japanese soldiers were consumers of ivory chopsticks, combs, cigarette holders and cases. The Buddha figurine, which survives from 1942, showed the diversity of ivory carvers from jewelry to utilitarian materials, religious items, and decorations.

Even when the Japanese lost political power in Burma when World War II ended, ivory carving has continued in the country. Many ivory carvers passed down the tradition to their next generation. In the early 1970s when ivory-made materials became globally popular, the Burmese government brought tour groups to the country. But this did not benefit Tin Aung, a known ivory businessman.

When tourists started coming to the country, Tin Aung opened a second ivory shop in his expanded home and employed 17 carvers. As the ivory industry continued to flourish in the 1980s, competition of ivory businesses began and Tin Aung?s carvers went down to 7. In 1988, he closed down his two shops after the riots. He reopened his shop in 1990 and when he died a year after, no one carried on his business.

U Win Maung became one of the best and most successful ivory carvers in Myanmar. He was a specialist in human figurine carving and in staining to “antique” a piece. Then, he trained U Ba Pe who later became skilled carver and businessman in Yangoon. Today, there are only about seven ivory carvers left in Yangon. Others retired and some shifted to wood or moved to Mandalay. This is because acquiring raw ivory is too difficult to sustain ivory carvers. Most of the tusks in Myanmar are sold to Mandalay, Thailand or China.

Take time to consider the points presented above. What you learn may help you overcome your hesitation to take action.

About the Author
By Cher Tour Tickets, feel free to visit our Cher Tickets site: Cher Tickets
In entertainment news, find Cher Tickets now for the 2014 Dressed To Kill Tour. See Cher Live as she performs new songs off her Closer To The Truth album and a lot of her other great hits!

Insightful Guide about the Good Sources of Ivory

It is a known fact that original ivories are the ones that come from the teeth of elephants and teeth and tusks of the wooly mammoth. This doesn?t mean that these are the only sources of such object because this can also be acquired on the tusks and teeth of walrus, such as the Pacific Walrus, which tusks grow up to five centimeters and are elongated. Its teeth come in irregularly round form. This object can also be acquired on the beak of the Helmeted Hornbill.

Such object is a good source of artistic pieces and precious materials. This is why many people, especially the hobbyists and collectors who are getting engaged in collecting anything that is made from such. If you want to start on this, you have to make sure that you only acquire the legal types. It is a fact that hunting elephants for their tusks and teeth has already been banned since the 70s. It is now illegal to buy pieces and things that come from the tusks of the elephants that have been gathered after the ban has been imposed. You need to look for the types that come from ancient elephants or from the extinct wooly mammoth

Here?s a detailed look into the other sources of this popular and most sought after object.

Most of this information comes straight from the Ivory pros. Careful reading to the end virtually guarantees that you’ll know what they know.

In the Arctic regions, people have long found out that this element can be found on walrus. The activity has been in existence since the prehistoric era. The carving and engraving of such material that is made from the tusks and teeth of walrus are common in the Inuit clans in Greenland and North America, the clans of Chukchi and Koryak that can be found around the continent of Russia. This animal is a good source of the material because the tusks of the Walrus are elongated with the average size of around 5 centimeters in length. Its teeth got the irregular round shape. The enamel on its tusk coating will wear out as the animal grows in age and in size and it will develop cracks.

This material can also be obtained from the Warthog, such as the common kinds that can be found in many parts of Africa. The size of this animal is about three to five feet and its weight can be from 100 up to about 300 pounds and beyond. This animal?s tusks and teeth are used to dig and also serve as their defense mechanism that helps them survive. Their upper protruding teeth can get up to about nine inches in length and the lower set is shorter.

The Helmeted Hornbill is another good source of this object. This is a large bird that flocks on the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Malay. Carving objects that are made from this material can be rooted in the Ming Dynasty of China, the cultural artistic expressions in Japan and the carving activities in Netsuke that dates back 300 years ago.

With so many sources of ivory, you have lots of options about the materials that will help you from getting tempted in getting unlawful types.

I hope that reading the above information was both enjoyable and educational for you. Your learning process should be ongoing–the more you understand about any subject, the more you will be able to share with others.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, now offering the best guide on movie downloads over at free movie downloads

Looking into the Beauty and Uses of Ivory

Imagine the next time you join a discussion about Ivory. When you start sharing the fascinating Ivory facts below, your friends will be absolutely amazed.

Due to near-extinction of elephants, ivory trade is banned globally since 1989 through listing of elephants on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

The steep increase of illegal ivory trade has continued until today because of the rising demand in East Asia and the mass production of ivory carvings. This is because ivory carving has been an artistic tradition in Eastern countries such as Myanmar and Thailand. But what is ivory exactly and why it has been an important part of human history?

Ivory is obtained from the elephant?s tusks or its upper incisors. It is hard and smooth substance mainly consists of dentin. The word came from Ancient Egyptian ?abu? that means elephant. While the word is commonly associated to the tusks of elephants, it was expanded to include the tusks and teeth of other animals such as walruses, hippopotamuses, and whales. Popular terms also include Genuine French Ivory and Indian Ivory which are imitation ivory.

A main component of ivory, dentin is one of the four main components of teeth and tusks. It is largely made up of mineralized connective tissue and collagen. Both teeth and tusks are almost the same, even in origin. Teeth are used for food chewing, whereas tusks are modified teeth projecting beyond the lips. Elephant tusks are formed with a partial cap of enamel that eventually wears away, leaving the dentin exposed.

Those of you not familiar with the latest on Ivory now have at least a basic understanding. But there’s more to come.

The ivory of animals differs in several aspects. The African elephant ivory differ from the Asian ones. The former is harder with a translucent yellow appearance. The former is softer with an opaque white appearance.

The beauty and smoothness of an elephant ivory lie on the Lines of Retzius or Lines of Schregar. These are visible in cross section which appears to be intersecting lines with a diamond shape between them. An elephant ivory is easily carved and durable. Unlike elephant ivory, the hippopotamus ivory is denser and harder to carve. The Walrus ivory has a primary and secondary dentin layer with the latter having a marbled facade.

Hence, ivory is used in making high valuable works of art, valuable religious items, and ornamented boxes For example, the Chinese valued ivory for both art and utilitarian objects such as images of Buddhist and Taoist deities and opium pipes.

Ivory carvings also flourished in other Asian countries like Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. These countries traditionally harvested ivory from domesticated elephants to make containers and carved into elaborate seals for government use.

Today, synthetic substitutes for ivory were developed to meet the continuing demand of it and address the rapid decline of elephant population. Examples of ivory imitation are materials made from cellulose nitrate, hard nut?also called vegetable ivory, and casein, which is a phosphoprotein that composes nearly 80 percent of proteins in milk and cheese. The differences between the two are the lack of irregular canal lines and that natural ivory fluoresce a bright blue under the sun while synthetic a dull blue.

There’s a lot to understand about Ivory. We were able to provide you with some of the facts above, but there is still plenty more to write about in subsequent articles.

About the Author
By Cher Tour Tickets, feel free to visit our Cher Tickets site: Cher Tickets
In entertainment news, find Cher Tickets now for the 2014 Dressed To Kill Tour. See Cher Live as she performs new songs off her Closer To The Truth album and a lot of her other great hits!

The Meanings and Truths about the Color Ivory

This article explains a few things about Ivory, and if you’re interested, then this is worth reading, because you can never tell what you don’t know.

Ivory is a neutral color that appears soft and nice. It is something that is a combination of white and brown that exudes the feeling of being at peace, simple yet elegant and shiny, but very much still pleasant. Overall, it is a calming color that will leave people who are looking at it feeling very serene and composed. This color has the same softness and pureness of white, but this appears to be a bit warmer. As an element, this comes from the tusks or on the bulk of the teeth of animals such as hippopotamus, narwhal, walrus, mammoth and elephant. The origin of the word meant elephant on the Ancient Egyptian that is why the term originally refers to the materials that come from the tusks of elephants.

Through time, people developed ways to use this object for practical and ornamental purposes. This was the first material that was used to create certain things before plastic was invented such as for piano keys, billiard balls, buttons, Scottish bagpipes and other ornamental items. It has a certain feel, especially on the piano keys that many people still look for it than the ones made from plastic substitute.

The ones that come from the tusks of elephants are considered as prized possessions by collectors and hobbyists. This is also hailed as a precious stone and the traditional 14th wedding anniversary gift. It is also favored by some brides. They look for gowns that contain accessories that are made from this material or they want something that has this shade and color.

Hopefully the information presented so far has been applicable. You might also want to consider the following:

It may be very useful and there are many things that can be done from this. The same is true when you talk about this as a color. It carries various meanings depending on how it was used and how it appears. The same rule applies as with any other colors. You will feel certain vibes and appeal as you utilize things that carry this color. Not all people may believe these meanings. There are some who do not want to base their luck on color meanings, but you will not lose anything either by opening up your mind to the suggestions on how this can affect your mood and attitude.

A touch of ivory can be used to brighten up or lighten colors such as blue, orange, purple, green and turquoise in dark or medium mode. When paired with light peach, light brown or pale green, this color will give out an earthy tone that is still softer as compared with other natural palettes.

There are certain connotations to words that contain this as the root word. For example, this kind of dome refers to people who appear to be intellectual like teachers. When it refers to the tower, this means refuge or a place of seclusion. This can also be taken in a derogatory manner, like this can refer to a person who has been mentally or physically ill.

Ivory can come in various shades. It can be called off-white, milk white, pearl and opaline.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, now offering the best guide on movie downloads over at free movie downloads

The History of Ivory – The Ideal Art Material

Have you ever wondered what exactly is up with Ivory? This informative report can give you an insight into everything you’ve ever wanted to know about Ivory.

A hard, creamy substance that looks like a bone, ivory comes from the teeth of animals such as elephants, walrus, and mammoths. The teeth of most animals, in fact, have ivory. The teeth, however, is referred to as the dentin. Ivory, on the other hand, refers to the material or the product used in commerce or trading. It is made up of water, organic matter, and calcium phosphate. True ivory, when exposed to abrupt temperature fluctuations, may give in to cracking. Today, ivory is popular as a material for making billiard balls and piano keys, as well as smaller objects such as jewelry, pins, and buttons. Ivory has long been used for many purposes, dating back on the ancient times. Read on the history of ivory that follows and you will appreciate the importance of this valuable substance.

In the early times, people in Babylonia, Cyprus, Egypt, Crete, and Assyria used ivory to create ornamental objects. Romans and Greeks also used ivory extensively in the prehistoric times. In the Renaissance period, ivory was a common material for making statuettes, inlay work, caskets, and crucifixes. In the 1600s, ivory started to be traded between countries. However, the diminishing population of elephants and the discovery of alternatives to ivory (e.g. vegetable ivory, plastic, synthetic ivory, etc.) led to the weakened ivory trade in the middle of the 20th century. That doesn?t stop, though, the high demand for ivory and ivory trades done illegally. A global ban on ivory trade was implemented in 1990, an action which was intended to thwart the near extinction of elephants and other animals whose tusks are used as sources of ivory.

Those of you not familiar with the latest on Ivory now have at least a basic understanding. But there’s more to come.

For many years, ivory has been used worldwide for inlay work on furniture and smaller objects such as chess pieces, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, letter openers, and knife handles. In China, India, and Japan, ivory products such as ornamental items, fans, and carved statuettes are created by many artisans. Ivory is touted as a great material for decorative art because it is tough and fine-grained. It is also easy to carve and dye. All these properties make ivory the traditional art material in many cultures. These ivory artworks last long enough to show the early civilization wherein they were made.

The term ivory, which has been used for nearly 1,000 years, comes from a number of African words that mean elephant. This fact signifies the use of elephants as the main source of ivory in almost every part of the world. In particular, elephant tusks are the common source of ivory in Europe, Japan, China, and India. Whales and walruses are the primary ivory sources in North America. Imitation ivories such as vegetable ivory, plastics, and synthetic ivory are becoming more and more popular these days as cheaper substitutes for real ivory.

The long history of ivory shows the resourcefulness and creativity of world civilizations, both old and new. Ivory is truly a precious substance that will continue to be used for a wide variety of purposes.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO Hosting

The Continuous Clamor towards Mammoth Ivory Art

The following article covers a topic that has recently moved to center stage–at least it seems that way. If you’ve been thinking you need to know more about it, here’s your opportunity.

Most of the legally acquired materials that are made from ivory come from the wooly mammoths that are now extinct. There was a time in the ancient period when these animals freely roamed about in the wild. Their tusks can get very long. These can measure up to 16 feet and beyond. There are various artifacts that were placed on various museums all over the globe that were made from the ivories from the tusks of mammoths, which date back around 10,000 to 20,000 years ago.

If you are interested in this kind of collection, it is not really that hard to acquire such as long as you have the capacity to pay and you know where to get the materials from. The source is very important in this case. You must never buy something that is made from the tusks or teeth of elephants that were gotten from elephants that were captured after a ban has been imposed on this activity in the 70s.

The material that was acquired from the mammoth?s tusk is very much legal. There are many carvers that are located all around the world that specialize in carving intricate designs out of this precious object. The mammoths? existence had long disappeared more than 10,000 to 40,000 years ago. Owning even a small piece that was carved from the mammoth?s tusk is similar to owning an integral part of history that can never be regained. This is the reason why this could get very expensive, but if you really are a collector, this is something that you can afford.

The best time to learn about Ivory is before you’re in the thick of things. Wise readers will keep reading to earn some valuable Ivory experience while it’s still free.

The materials that are obtained from the tusks of elephants and mammoths look very similar when you look at these. The differences will be highly visible when the materials are placed under the ultra violet light. The ones that come from mammoths contain deposits of iron phosphate. When under the UV light, this looks purplish in color. Both types have different angles on their cross sections and the differences can only be pointed out by specialists.

The main source of the kinds that are obtained from the mammoths? tusks come from the Arctic regions, where these animals got buried before they?ve gone extinct. Legal suppliers must first find the right sources of these materials before they can subject these to procurement. After this process, the end product can then be turned into various forms of sculpture such as jewelry, netsuke, curios and a lot more.

The artistic pieces can then be sold to collectors and other individuals who are interested to acquire such. The materials vary on prices depending on the size and intricacies of design. If you want to start on a collection or add something to what you already own, you may first want to check different online resources. You can also look for the local artifact or curio shops that are near your place.

Things that are carved from a real ivory piece are actually good investments. The source is rare that is why its value keeps on increasing through time.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, now offering the best guide on movie downloads over at free movie downloads

The Advance Method of Tracking Illegal Ivory Trade

The illegal ivory trade has continued to rise despite efforts on banning such business activity. The problem now lies on how to track illegal ivory traders. This is a question on the inability to determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory traders smuggle it across several international borders using many differing trade routes. This strategy made poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to determine especially in the forests of Central Africa.

Recently, a scientific breakthrough has been developed that can potentially protect the thousands of elephants who are near to extinction. Researchers devised a genetic map of Africa’s elephants which will enable investigators to precisely locate the region where a shipment has been made. Aside from the genetic analysis, the method can also determine where stronger anti-poaching efforts are needed. Then, it will provide the basis for monitoring the extent of the trade. Poaching is the term use to refer to illegal harvesting of elephants.

Extracting the DNA was the most complex matter in developing the new genetic devise. The process involved powdering the ivory. However, the researcher team?s previous experiments to powder the ivory through heat had destroyed the DNA. In the latter experiments, the researcher team borrowed a method used by dentists to grind teeth to dust. This machine freezes the ivory at -240C, which brittles the ivory enough to be turned into powder. Thus, the DNA was preserved.

Knowledge can give you a real advantage. To make sure you’re fully informed about Ivory, keep reading.

They identified genetic markers in African elephant population from various locations, detailing a genetic make-up of the continent?s elephants. Then, they adapted their genetic test to ivory. They used African elephant tusks that were at least 10 to 20 years old. They used a statistical method to extrapolate genetic signatures to fill in gaps between sampled populations.

The new devise was initially used to seize contraband ivory in Singapore in 2002. Thirty seven of the 500 seized tusks were tested. All the 37 tusks actually matched the genetics of elephants from Zambia and other near savannah. This resulted to replacement of Zambia?s director of wildlife and tightening of laws on ivory smuggling.

The advance technology is very timely during a period when illegal trade is reported the highest since its ban on 1989 through the listing of elephants in Appendix I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The population of African elephants has now dropped to 600,000 from 1.2 million in 1970s. Lately, the Singapore government seized 6.5 tons of ivory. This is the largest apprehension in the history of the ivory trade. In addition, wildlife trade monitoring network TRAFFIC reported a more than 4,000 elephants being killed every year to meet the demand for ivory consumption.

The increase in price of ivory is accounted as the major reason of steep increase in poaching. In 1989 when the ban was first implemented, the price of an ivory is $100 per kilogram. The price went down to $10 a ton in the subsequent years. But by the recent years, the price rocketed to $850. Thus, for illegal traders, ivory has become more lucrative.

There’s a lot to understand about Ivory. We were able to provide you with some of the facts above, but there is still plenty more to write about in subsequent articles.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO Hosting

The Right Way to Tackle Ivory Collection

If you are interested in collecting ivory, you have to make sure that you are very aware of the law that comes with this kind of hobby. You wouldn?t want to get into trouble just because you have started on something that can make you happy and something that you really adore. You have to take note that there is a ban that prohibits the collection of elephant tusks where such object comes from.

Legal Collection

The most common kind of this object that can be legally collected are the ones that come from older elephant tusks or from the mammoths that are considered extinct for quite a long time already. You can still find lots of hobbyists with ivories that came from the mammoths, but no one is really sure if the collection?s fate will soon follow the road that its source led and that is to extinction.

Is everything making sense so far? If not, I’m sure that with just a little more reading, all the facts will fall into place.

Many people consider this object a beautiful artistic piece. Its collection began many centuries ago, while people were also learning to carve it to create various masterpieces to please their artistic eyes. Such object can come from many kinds of animals, such as on the hornbill, walrus and sperm whale, but what is considered as real comes from the tusks and teeth of elephants and mammoths.

It was in the 1970s when a ban was declared for hunting elephants for their tusks. There may be some people who have pieces that came from elephants, but most of them have the materials that were gathered before the ban was pronounced. There may be some people who don?t abide by the law and continue to hunt elephants for their tusks so that they will be able to earn by selling the collectible items or keeping these for their own personal purpose. If you happen to see anyone that is into this activity, you must not hesitate to warn them or get help from the rightful authorities to stop them from continuing with such. If they won?t be stopped as soon as possible, even these elephants may only exist on history books in years to come.

The object can also be obtained from the hippopotamus teeth. This type is also quite common like the ones that came from mammoth tusks. The kinds that are acquired from the teeth of the hippopotamus are often used for inlays, buttons and items that are utilized on a flat surface. In China, the popular kinds are the ones that come from the beak of the hornbill. This can produce various collectible and wearable designs, small brooches and buckles. To create markings of tiny objects that can be hand crafted in an artistic way, the materials that come from the sperm whale and walrus are utilized.

It is very much okay to start a hobby or give in to your clamor for art and beauty that includes collecting ivory. You have to make sure though that you are not causing any troubles to anyone or anything, not unless you want to mess the whole thing up by getting caught red handed.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, now offering the best guide on movie downloads over at free movie downloads

Simple Solutions in Finding the Right Ivory Wedding Dress

You have waited a long time for this day to come and you want to make sure that everything is going to be perfect on your wedding day. To begin with, you are actively seeking the right gown that will make you appear your most beautiful come that moment when it?s time to hit the aisle. You?ve always dreamed of this day wearing a long, smooth flowing gown in ivory color. The color complements almost all types of skin tones. This can come as off white with touches of light brown.

The Design

Now that you have chosen the color, your next task is to look for the right person who will design the material according on how you envision your dress to be. You can always hire good and known designers if you can afford them. If you can?t allot the kind of budget that they require, you must ask around for good referrals of those who are only starting on the field, but are already making an impact with their creations.

You can check out online discussions about the topic if you can?t find good recommendations from your acquaintances. The most important thing here after you have found the right person is that you will be able to connect with them. You can gather this by talking to them about your ideas and look at the sketches that they will come up with. You must also look at the samples of their past work to fully understand if you like their style or it will be best if you will look for other designers while it?s still early before the wedding date.

You can see that there’s practical value in learning more about Ivory. Can you think of ways to apply what’s been covered so far?

The Venue

The design of the dress will also matter depending on where you intend to hold your wedding. You must opt for shorter and topical styles if you are going to be wed on the beach. You can opt for the long gown with long train and yards of lace if the event is going to be strictly formal. If you?d like to be more practical about the venture, you may want to choose something that can be worn again on another occasion. There are many brides who hesitate in getting expensive or gowns that are too pretty because they can only wear this once and after the event, it will stay on their closet or they can also choose to sell the item that took them so long to find. If you want something that you can wear on other occasions, you may want to choose something that is short, with minimal details like beads and laces.

Something Borrowed

You can also borrow the gown from your family members if they have the kind that will fit and complement you. You can also purchase worn wedding dresses with the color of your choice at online auctions sites. If you will resort to this, make sure that you understand all terms and conditions of what and who you are dealing with before you proceed with the purchase.

All these can help you track down and obtain the right ivory wedding dress that will help you achieve the perfect day by being the bride that wore the perfect wedding gown.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO Hosting

The Rich Tradition of Thailand?s Ivory Carving

The “white elephant” (white only in some areas of the body) is sacred in Thailand. To classify it as sacred, an elephant should also be genteel in demeanor. If an elephant meets these criteria, it will belong by law to the King of Thailand.

Other elephants were very important in Thai life. They were used in war, transport, and work. The ban logging in 1989 left many elephants unemployed. However, their use to humankind did not cease. Today, both Asian and African elephants are near-extinction largely because the ivory trade. Together with habitat loss, these were the major causes of the steep decline. In 2001, Thailand was reported to have more than more than 88,000 worked ivory items for sale. These items were smuggled in from Africa, Myanmar and China.

Ivory carving in Thailand was done through hand tools such as saws, files, chisels, gauges, farmers, awls, and drills until the late 1970s. The need for mass production to meet a higher demand led ivory workshops to use electric tools such as ban saws, grinders, lathes, and buffers.

Hopefully the information presented so far has been applicable. You might also want to consider the following:

Buddhas, animals, and King Rama V are the three subjects done only by a skilled Thai master carver. Most Thai craftsmen, which include women, specialize in specific tasks or subject. It should be noted though that versatility is an important characteristic of skilled carvers. In Thai ivory carving, the best raw ivory is used for the larger figurines, carved tusks and name seals. The poorest ivory is for pendants, amulets, necklaces, and rosary beads; whereas the good ones are used for the bangles and carved bracelets.

Popular aesthetic sculptures in Thailand are composed of religious subjects such as the Buddha, various mythological creatures, chess pieces, and bindings for palm-leaf Buddhist scriptures. Notable examples of these were carved in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These were housed in the National Museum in Bangkok. These best pieces were carved by craftsmen from the royal palace or those patronized by powerful families.

They say the quality of Thai ivory carving declined as consumers shifted from royalty and the noble class to tourists and businessmen. A large part of this is due to pressure on meeting higher demand but with small amount of time allotted on every piece. This was the result of mass production where priority is placed on quantity and not on quality. Before, craftsmen spend months carving a single piece using hand tools. Mass-market electric tool reduced the time, at the same time the attention a carver spends on individual items.

To date, there are about 2,000 domesticated elephants in Thailand. However, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is a worldwide ban on ivory trade. Locally, the government also implemented the ?Elephant Law? that protects the specie from near-extinction. With an extensive international and local pressure to ban ivory sales, livelihoods of around 120 carvers in the country adversely affected. For instance, the shift from ivory to cow bone carving decreased the income of one workshop from an average of $500 a month to $150 a month.

Now might be a good time to write down the main points covered above. The act of putting it down on paper will help you remember what’s important about Ivory.

About the Author
By Anders Eriksson, now offering the best guide on movie downloads over at free movie downloads

Categories